How Cancer Starts?

Cells in the body grow uncontrollably in cancer, causing the illness to
spread throughout the body. Almost everywhere in the human body,
there is the possibility of cancer because the body is composed of
trillions of cells. The human body normally produces new cells as it
needs them by growing and multiplying cells. A cell dies when it grows
old or becomes damaged, and it is replaced by a new one.
In some cases, this orderly process malfunctions, which leads to
abnormal or damaged cells growing and multiplying which they
shouldn’t. As a result of these cells, tumors may form. It is possible for a
tumor to be cancerous or not. It is possible for cancerous tumors to
spread to distant parts of the body by invading nearby tissues or by
spreading into nearby tissues. It is also possible to refer to cancerous
tumors as malignant tumors. Solid tumors are formed by many cancers,
but leukemias, for example, usually do not.
A benign tumor doesn’t spread to nearby tissues, nor does it invade
them. Cancerous tumors sometimes grow back after being removed,
whereas benign tumors don’t. There are times, however, when benign

How Cancer Actually Starts?

During proper cell division and growth, genes tell cells when to divide
and grow. Each cell makes a copy of itself when it divides. When a single
cell divides, it produces two identical cells, then two identical cells
produce four, etc. Cells in adults normally divide in order to make more
cells only when they are needed, for example, as replacements for aging
or damaged ones.
However, cancer cells differ from normal cells. Mutations in genes are
responsible for turning a normal cell into a cancer cell. As our genes
wear out, we can inherit gene mutations or develop them over time as
our genes wear out. We can also get gene mutations from smoking,
drinking, or being exposed to ultraviolet light.
For understanding cancer cells, it is crucial to understand how they
behave differently from normal cells. Rather than dying when it should, it
starts growing and dividing out of control. Moreover, they are less
mature than normal cells, so they remain immature. It is the abnormal
and uncontrolled growth of cells that causes all cancers, despite their
many types. All cells in the body are capable of causing cancer.

How Cancer Grows Day By Day?

Cells with gene mutations may grow out of control or fail to die when
they should due to interference with normal instructions. Cancer cells act
differently from normal cells, so they can continue to grow. Normal cells
differ from cancer cells in the following ways:

  • An uncontrollable division
  • Immature cells can’t mature into mature cells with specific functions
  • Immune system avoidance
  • Although they are warned against dividing or dying, they ignore
    them
  • Due to their inability to stick together, they can spread through the
    bloodstream or lymphatic system
  • Damage tissues and organs by growing into them

It is inevitable that cancer cells will divide and grow into tumours as they
divide. There are no differences between cancer cells and normal cells
when it comes to their needs. To grow and survive, they need oxygen
and nutrients from the blood supply. In small tumors, oxygen and
nutrients are provided by nearby blood vessels, so they can grow easily.
Cancer cells require more oxygen and nutrients as they grow, so a tumor
needs more blood to supply them. As a result, cancer cells stimulate
tumors to grow new blood vessels. The process of angiogenesis is

responsible for tumor growth and expansion. It also facilitates the
spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body by allowing them to
enter the bloodstream. Many researchers are investigating drugs that
stop blood vessel growth, thereby slowing the growth of tumors and
even shrinking them.

How Cancer Spreads to Other Body Parts?

It is possible for cancer cells to spread to nearby tissues and structures
as a tumor grows by pushing against the normal tissue beside it. As
cancer cells grow, they also produce enzymes that breakdown normal
cells and tissues. The term invasive cancer refers to cancer that grows
into nearby tissues.
It is also possible for cancer to spread from one part of the body to
another. It is known as metastasis. Through the blood or lymphatic
system, cancer cells can spread to new sites in the body when they
break away from a tumor.

Where Can Cancer Spread?

There are some areas of the body where cancer tends to spread. In order
to classify cancers based on where they are located in the body and

whether they have spread, doctors have developed staging systems.
Staging systems range from 1 to 4 for many types of cancer.
It helps doctors predict how a cancer will grow if they know how it
spreads and where it may spread. Providing appropriate supportive care
and planning treatment is also made easier by this information. Any part
of the body can be affected by cancer, but lymph nodes, bones, the
brain, the liver, and the lungs are most likely to be affected.

Why Does Cancer Come Back Sometimes?

In spite of treatment methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, and
radiation therapy, cancer can sometimes return. Moreover, some cancers
can recur decades after they were first diagnosed. Cancer recurrences
are often metastatic. Cancers that were first diagnosed in stages 1 or 2
may recur in stages 4 with metastases. A majority of cancer deaths occur
as a result of metastases.

During cancer treatment, the goal is to prevent the growth or
persistence of cancer cells in the body. Breast and lung cancers are
treated with adjuvant chemotherapy when they are in an early stage.
Recurrences of cancer can occur in people who have previously been
treated successfully. There is no reason to believe that their treatment
was incorrect or unsuccessful. The more important thing is to recognize
that some cancers have a higher possibility of returning.

When to See an Oncologist in Nepal?

When it comes to consulting a medical oncologist in Nepal, you can do
so as soon as you experience any of the cancer symptoms, or cancer
recurrence symptoms. The cancer specialist in Nepal will then check you
thoroughly and let you know about your condition afterwards. The best
cancer treating doctor will also help you in each and every phase of your
treatment procedures. As per the top medical oncologist in Nepal, Dr.
Sudip Shrestha
, it is essential to share every symptom as well as
experience with your cancer doctor to make the process much more
efficient.

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